First Aid in Emergency Situations
Action Plan
D anger - yourself, casualty, bystander
R esponse
S end for help - 111

A irways - Head tilt / Chin lift
B reathing - look . listen / feel
C irculation - look for signs of
D efibrillator
B leeding
S hock

recovery_position.jpg

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation

First aid kit
Plastic bags
Gloves
Sanitisor
Face barrier shield
Slings
Scissors
Antiseptic wipes
Cling film

What may make you go unconscious!
Heat
Electricity
Allergic reaction - drugs, medicines, insects
Ruptures
Trauma
Bleeding
Epilepsy
Anaphyllaxis
Temperature change
Shock / Seizures

Fainting = pulse slow / skin pale / sweating
Shock =

What causes shock?
Cardiogenic
Hypovolemic- Vomitting / diarrhea
Septic - Blood poisoning
Burns
Neurogenic - spinal column

Stop
Raise legs
Nil by mouth
Reassurance!

What to do for Bleeding
Stop flow of blood - (10 minutes on / 10 seconds off) : pressure - add padding / hold / add more padding if need to
Elevation
Brachial / Femoral (Groin) pressure points pressure

How to tell Concussion / Compression

More serious!
Headache
Sleepy
Feeling sick
Dizzy
Disorientated / confused
Vomititng
Sweating
Blurred vision
Bleeding from ears
Dilated pupils or different size
Dark eyes
Breathing
Fluid from nose
Confusion
Swelling behind ears

What to do ...
If want to sleep - wake them up and ask question every 5 minutes.
Monitor for 24 hours.
Build evidence from bystanders.

Nose bleed
  1. lean forward
  2. Compression on soft tissue at top of nose

Teeth
  1. Put in milk (or own saliva)
  2. Or put back in same hole in mouth?

All other limbs etc
  1. Icepack

Bones

Strains (ligaments and tissues) and sprains (between joints) and dislocations
P revention
R est
I ce (20 mins)
C ompression - Start bandage at the point furthest from the heart (Check not too tight)
E levation - above the level of your heart
D iagnosis - Doctor (Should ahve seen some improvement after 48 hours - otherwise get it checked)

Burns
C ool - 20 mins (Chemical burns - up to 1 hour) - running liquid if possible
C lear
C over - cling film is good for this


Signs
Manage
Equipment
Diabetic
Shakes
Lethargic
Aggressive
Confused
Trembles
Unconscious
111
Sugar
Heart / Chest pain
Pain in left arm
Breathing
111
Nasal Spray
Asprin
Stroke
Headache
111

Menninmoccal
Fever
Unwell
High pitched
Can't put chin on chest
Rash
111
Don't share utensils and drink bottles
Cardio Pulonary Resusitation
(Heart) (Lung)
Adult - 8+ years
Child - 1-8 years
Infant - 0-1 years

Centre of chest
Push down 5cm
100 per minute

'Another one bites the dust' or 'Stating alive' are songs at a good speed to do compressions to.
Adults - 30 compressions (2 hands ... straight arms and reasonably quick) ... then tip head back 2 breaths
Child - 5 breaths, then 30 compressions (1 hand), then 2 breaths
Infant - 5 puffs (tilt back only a little bit, mouth over nose and mouth), then 30 compressions (2 fingers), then 2 puffs

D anger
R esponse
S end for help
A irway
B reathing
C irculation
D efibulation
B leeding
S hock

Choking
(The younger they are the quicker the colour will change)
Adult - 5 thumps on back, check, then 5 chest pushes/compressions
Child - 5 cupped hand thumps on back, then 5 chest compressions
Infant - Pick up and put over shoulder (look for breathing in tummy)

When breathing on their own, put in the recovery position.
Keep checking however as may not have solved the problem

Further information:
Zoll.co.nz
Firstaidtosurvive.co.nz